Friedric Bastiat - mistrz reductio ad absurdum

Frédéric Bastiat (1801-1850) to postać, której należy się poczesne miejsce w kronikach ekonomii politycznej. Bastiat, członek The French Liberal, zwolennik leseferyzmu, szkoły ekonomistów, do której... Więcej »

O referendum konstytucyjnym. Dlaczego potrzebujemy nowej ustawy zasadniczej?

Przedstawiam swój głos w sprawie zmiany konstytucji i w sprawie referendum konstytucyjnego. Nie będą to żadne prawdy objawione prawnika-konstytucjonalisty tylko zdanie przedsiębiorcy, osoby myślącej zdroworozsądkowo... Więcej »

Wojna przeciw bogactwu

Jedną z mało zbadanych tajemnic historii jest wrogość społeczeństwa do swych największych dobroczyńców, do producentów bogactwa. Na każdym kontynencie i w każdej epoce ludzie, którzy górowali nad innymi... Więcej »

Jak długą żyją imperia i dlaczego upadają

O historii mówi się często, że jest nauczycielką życia. Ale jest również powiedzenie, że historia uczy, że jeszcze nikogo niczego nie nauczyła. Zapewne tej drugiej maksymy trzymają się ci wszyscy, którzy... Więcej »

Jak pokonać marksizm?

Dobra zmiana dla Polski powinna przede wszystkim oznaczać całkowite wyrugowanie z mentalności naszego narodu wciąż obfitych złogów marksizmu. Więcej »

Jednym z największych błędów jest sądzenie programów politycznych i rządowych na podstawie ich zamiarów, a nie rezultatów
Milton Friedman

Reminder of Basic Economic Injunctions

We, the undersigned participants of the First International Conference on "Ethical Foundations of Economy" in Cracow (Poland) on October 13-14, 2003, wish to attract the public attention to the primordial importance of ethics in the actions of authorities and citizens for the national economy. The less ethical their actions are, the worse the condition of the national economy becomes - resulting in more poverty and other social miseries.



Why does it happen, and what injunctions do ensue therefrom? A natural feature of man is his pursuit of happiness. In the material aspect, it manifests itself in man's pursuit of prosperity and well~being. Everyone tries to achieve that goal in his own manner and following his own way. Thus, he needs liberty to proceed so.

1) Man is, by nature, a creative being. A large part of the human activity is directed toward producing desirable material goods. The more of such goods are produced, and made available, the greater the degree of wealth formation. Restricting, hampering or discouraging of such activity by the government, or anybody else, (for example, by the way of improper laws, regulations, or blackmail), or by punishing man for this activity (for example, by excessive taxation), if his activity is not a threat to the human life or property, and does not deny a similar activity to another person, is unethical and economically detrimental - it prevents the creation of goods and their subsequent use - and contributes to unemployment and poverty. It is imperative to refrain oneself from restraining the people in their productive activities.

2) Man is, by his nature, a social being. It shows up in the exchange of goods between people. A voluntary exchange takes place when each party to the exchange perceives a benefit in it. Thus, after the transaction, tbe parties are richer than prior to it. For this reason, free trade is a source of wealth. Restricting or discouraging, by government or anybody else, the free exchange of goods between people is preventing the generation of wealth and the improvement of the human condition - is unethical and constitutes an economic nuisance or sabotage that leads to poverty and other economic and social problems. Thus, it is essential to support free trade.

3) Man is, by nature, a rational being. The scarcity of natural means and resources motivates him to manage the assets he has carefully and economically. Thus, the man strives to buy at the lowest price, and to sell at the highest one. The less of desirable goods is available on the market, the higher is the price he is willing to pay for them, and vice versa, thus motivating the producers to produce or to stop producing those goods. The law of supply and demand is a reflection of this natural human behavior. Violating that law by governments, by imposing some maximum or minimum allowed price on merchandise, labor, or rent, leads to distortions of the market, and a decrease in the availability of the desired goods thereon. So, the economy, and public interest suffer. The injunction is to respect the law of supply and demand, that basic of economic laws.

4) Man, when deprived of his private property, loses interest and motivation to work for producing or exchanging goods. The protection and security of man's right to private property is for him the basis for investing his time, energy, and work, for the creation of wealth and the improvement of his well-being; and vice versa - the disrespect for man's right to private property leads to poverty. The injunction is not only not to deprive anybody from his own property, but also to support his right to the same.

A deeper reflection on the above matters leads us to the conclusion that each of the above injunctions can be ,reduced to one: do not deprive any person of what belongs to him, be it his natural right to creativity and free production or exchange of goods, be it the fruit of his achievements and labor, since such attempt against the person's property constitutes theft, and causes unemployment, poverty, and other economic and social ails. Therefore, the injunction "thou shalt not steal!" is the main economic imperative.

* * *

(The above text prepared in English and Polish languages has been signed by the majority of the participants of the Conference on "Ethical Foundations of Economy" in Krakow, Poland,
October 13 - 14, 2003).
Data dodania: 2008-02-06 14:26:25
Artykul przeczytano 3691 razy